arcade video games What Kids Learn Thats POSITIVE from Playing Video Games
Our family is engaged in "blind" video games from time to time...But it is treated as "junk food.It really has no "nutritional" value for our brains.Like the observers above, many parents and critics think computers and video games are stupid.e.Children don't learn anything but hands.From the thousands of hours they spend playing video games, eye coordination.Other critics argue that video games deliver only negative messages that, in the words of one person, teach our children to kill.Others assert that while players may know the game, they don't know anything about real life.I think all these positions are wrong.Because every time a person plays a game, no matter what game a person plays, learning happens constantly, whether the player is willing or not, and whether he is aware of this.Players are learning to live, one of the huge positive consequences of all games.This kind of learning is carried out continuously and at the same time in every game and every game.Don't even pay too much attention.But in order to analyze how players learn and what to learn, we do need to pay attention to some.The first thing we need to pay attention to is the difference between the game interface information, as shown in graphics, audio and text (commonly referred to as game content) and the basic information and required skills of the game.I'm not the apologist for all the content in a computer game, but most reviewers think it has a richer experience.In fact, in each game, in addition to the surface content of the game, even though it is possible, there is a lot of useful learning in progress.This powerful, positive learning is almost universally ignored by critics, parents and educators.My point is: While it is possible to adjust the content of video and computer games to make it more in sync with social or teaching objectives, this has happened in some cases. Even with current content.In fact, computers and video games, as a learning tool, may be the most powerful mechanism ever.So, putting aside specific content, let's take a look at what fun kids have learned from playing video and computer games that they spend so much time playing.Let me talk about it first, and then follow up on some of the best concrete examples --selling games.Let me suggest five levels to learn in video and computer games.I will refer to these as "how", "what", "why", "where", "when/whether" game learning level.Their names are really complicated, but I don't like jargon.Because I feel that these five levels apply to all gamers who appear to varying degrees, at any age, I generally do not distinguish between the kidolder children and the kidyounger children.However, I think this distinction is sometimes useful and can even be subdivided further.The most obvious level of learning when you play video or computer games is learning how to do something.When you play, you learn the action of the game gradually or quickly, understand how various characters, pawns, or other things operate, and what you can get them to do.People learn how to drag tiles to build a virtual city or theme park.We learn how to fight and protect ourselves in the virtual world.One learns how to train a creature and make it evolve.Of course, we learned about the physical operation of the controllers involved in all of this.Another unconscious message that a person learns to play games is that he controls what happens on the screen, unlike watching movies or TV.Even the baby learns this quickly, and is fascinated to sit, move the mouse, and watch the screen happily for a long time.This is the real world of learning.To what extent do players understand the real world?On the one hand, pattern recognition.It has been shown that learning how to flip the Tetris can enhance the ability to handle psychological space, which can help children in the real world.verbal test.In fact, Patricia Mark Greenfield, a professor of psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles, pointed out that video games are right and wrong.American language IQ.The more content the game is, the more it can simulate anything in the real world, and the more it can understand how to do things in the real world.The designers of computers and video games are proud of the game and the game is becoming more and more realistic.One may not be able to learn to do everything in computer games. You need a removable platform or a real body, but you can learn how to do it is huge and still far below-explored.Can you learn to find your way in the real worldLiving oil platform, trading financial instruments, managing theme parks, or targeting stealth?Sure you can.Players often choose their own games because they are interested in learning these things.Whether a person learns to do these things physically depends mainly on the device the game controller provides game input.Using the mouse and keyboard, or a typical console controller (two hands, a few buttons), a player will not do real life, physical movements, learning is mainly spiritual (good!) But game controllers can also be made, and they are usually very realistic in the arcade.The precise control of the vehicle, the playing surface of the instrument, and the doctor's remote surgical tools can all be used to control video games.During my recent visit to the Tokyo playroom, I played the electronic phone controlled by fire hose, dog rope, drum, gun, bike, hammer, typewriter keyboard, punching bag, car, tambourine, train, kayaking, bus, maracas, tips for a pool and even a sushi knife.In these games, any boundary between the game and the realityLife and study are completely gone.More importantly, players of computers and video games not only learn how to do things in terms of understanding programs, but also practice skills until learning is internalized and becomes second nature.Critic Dave Grossman 6 attributes the accuracy of targeting a young mass killer to this practice, which may or may not be.But just because a person learns how to do something doesn't mean that he has learned when Or should he do it.I will talk about this later.How to extend to more transferable learning by improving the level of non-learninggame-Specific skills.For example, players who often play games learn how to handle in parallel and multipleTasks, because they have to do so in order to succeed.They learn how to get many sources of information at the same time, such as an enlarged view in a driving or flying game, an overall view, a rearview mirror, and they do a better job of incorporating these views into a single world view.They learn how to integrate peripheral information, a skill that Professor Greenfield has shown through computer games --Also playingTo what extent do children learn from playing Pokémon?They actually learned it unconsciously and didn't think of how to use and manage a huge database of information at all!This is very useful.If the background is equally compelling, world learning can easily be applied to other large amounts of information, such as plant, animal, or geographic data.How do we know the level of learning that actually happens?Because we can observePeople who practice over and over often learn and become better.Therefore, players of video or computer games have learned a lot at this first level.But we barely touched the surface.Let's dig deeper.In Level 2, players understand what to do in any particular game (and, equally important, not to do anything ).In other words, they learn the rules.The rules of any game teach you what is possible and/or feasible in this environment, and video and computer games are no exception.For example, people discover by playing games whether the rules of the shooting game allow you to attack players in your own team, or whether the simulation game allows you to do destructive (or self-Acts of destruction.Before video games appear, players usually learn the rules of the game before they start playing.But this is not the case for computers and video games.Their rules of the game are built into programming and you learn them through trial and error in the game.In fact, the process of the gameAccording to professor Sherry Turkle of MIT, playing can be seen as learning to understand the rules code.This aspect of the game is likely to improve the skills of inductive discovery, which is the thinking process behind scientific thinking.Another important feature of video games is that players can usually change the built-inin rules.They do this by using code that is easy to find, which makes adults feel frustrated and misunderstood because the cheat code is passed from the player to the player through magazines, networks, and word of mouth.What these codes really do is change the rules of the game by giving the player extra weapons, life, power, etc.Therefore, the game player knows that the rules are not necessarily fixed, but can be changed.Is this true?lifex94 lesson?How often do we hear business books telling managers to change the rules of the game.Video game rules teach kids more about real life.Gamers constantly compare the rules of any game they are playing with the rules they have learned elsewhere, asking themselves if the rules of this game are fair, accurate, etc.As far as I know the world?We know that this comparison happens because games with very unfair or inaccurate rules will soon be recognized as bogbogus and will not play much.For example, if the Sim City rules allow players to build a modern metropolis without electricity, then no one will play with it.Game designers spend a lot of time tweaking the rules of the game to make them look plausible.Players of all ages often argue fiercely whether the rules of the game reflect the real world in the physical field (what is the real trajectory of missiles in space?Biology (can a person really take this kind of blow and live?), And human behavior (will the opponent do this or say so?Therefore, the rules of video and computer games force the player, regardless of his or her age, to reflect and compare the game to life they already know, at least subconsciously.It's important, really.lifex94 learning.At what level did the children learn about another aspect of the rules: what if we broke the rules?It's not fair to hear players shouting!You can't do that!In a very early gameThis is exactly what they have learned.So even at the first two levels, video and computer games have quite a bit of learning regardless of the content, and a lot of it is easy to apply to the real world.But we don't even see all the learning that happens in these activities.Upgrade, as players say.The third level is the reason for learning.Players learn the strategy of the game while playing the game.(Strategy depends, of course, on the rules, too.Successful gamers will find that sometimes you need to attack openly and sometimes you need to attack secretly.In some cases you need horde and selfishness, and in other cases you need to work together.Complex actions are more effective than simple actions.Weak blocks get power when used as a group.Be vigilant, be prepared and don't attack until you have the power you need.And be sure to reserve some resources for your defense.Game Strategies (and tactics) are full of lessons about real life.Like the rules, the strategy of the game needs to be life --Just as the game makes sense, even if the characters are purely fictional.Similarly, players are always making unconscious comparisons.For example, they know from life that the power levels between species usually depend on size.If a smaller character can beat a larger character, they know he 'd better have some strength, stamina, weapons and spells to make him stronger.Now, single player games are rapidly being replaced by multiplayer and online games, and strategies to learn computer or video games increasingly include learning to deal with others.This is about real.You can get the world.For thousands of years, officers have known that games can teach strategy, and the US military is far ahead of the curve in learning using video and computer games.The US Army, the Air Force, the Navy and the Marine Corps all use video and computer games to learn a variety of skills --Based on teamwork, flight, safety, shooting, diving, and even command units and moreBranches of all levels from recruits to senior officers.Although some games are customizedMany of them are ready-made in design.For example, the military now takes it for granted that the pilot candidate has mastered every military flight simulator game there.What they expect is that these people learn how to fly a plane, but why fight it.So are submarines, tanks and special forces.In fact, it is not only an indisputable fact that computer games teach strategies in sports and business, but it is now common.As at other levels, there are deeper reasons for the lessons learned from playing computers and video games.In these important and valuablex95 Second-x95 Counter-The value of persistence.There are two levels of learning for all this!Letx92s move it!Where level is the contexttextlevel, just like learning Where you are.It contains a lot of ongoing cultural and environmental learning in video and computer games.At this level, players can understand the world of the game and the values it represents.They have obtained cultural metaphors and images that describe the real world.At this level, children learn consciously and unconsciously.Their idea of the game is self-conscious.Psychologists tell us that games are an important means for children to learn to understand the world.Video games and computer games undoubtedly reflect all the "big ideals" or "myths" in our culture ".Players learn to deal with myths, legends, dangers, betrayal, and in fact there are always people who are bigger and stronger than you, said an observer of the New York Times, even if you kill bad guys and save girls, you will eventually die.Players learn how to deal with cultural relevance through games and how to deal with different people and characters.They know that on a planet, in a society, in a world, you can't do X, although it may be completely normal in their own world.They learn about achievements and leadership in culture.For example, they know that while the enemy may be hard to beat, you can beat them and win the game if you persevere and learn enough.Our games also reflect our society.Like most people in American society, our computers and video games are not violent, but reflect our broad interest.Critics who condemn our violent games may reflect on statistics that show that part of American society is violent, not particularly law-abiding.S.6 out of every 1000 people are imprisoned, higher than anywhere on Earthgame-Related factors.Of course, it's not a new study for kids who watch 20,000 hours of TV before graduating from college.Finally, as with all other forms of expression, video and computer games reflect and explain specific sub-Create their culture.According to well-respected scientist Danny Hillis, although they are rarely given the honor and respect they deserve, the designers and builders of computer and video games are the smartest and most creative in the worldThe games they create reflect their own ideas, fantasies, heroes and villains.Gamers Learn to identify with the characters and the culture they live in.How do we know this learning will happen?Again, through observation.I have watched the children play the game of Nintendo, the hero of the game.Link is their hero. they want to be the hero.He has the courage, the desire to find, explore, overcome all enemies and finally save the princess, all they want to have.Of course, other players can also choose the Duke of nukham as their hero.For good or bad, children use video and computer games as filters to understand their lives, as in the past, they use stories (E.G.g.You're lanslow. I'm modrid.But a big difference between the game and the story is that the kids learn that they can control the life of the hero, not just fantasy.One of the most effective game technologies is immersive messaging.The more a person feels that he is actually a culture, the more he can learn from it.consciously.Latest improvements in graphics, sound, smell and soundforce-The feedback controller makes video and computer games very immersive and feels like this to almost all players.(I predict that there will be special food to eat soon, as well as chewing gum to chew while playing.) Language teachers are particularly aware of how much learning is going on in immersive situations.So it's not surprising that many immersive games have taught kids a lot.Learning in an immersive world is largely controlled by designers who choose to zoom in on certain elements and reduce others.For example, if the designer magnifies the difficulty of defeating the enemy (increasing the challenge or extending the game), the player will find it difficult for the enemy to be defeated.Children receive any information in the game, including information about violations in the background of the game, which is usually interesting.This is the fifth and most important level of learning.When/whether level is the final and final level of learning in computer and video games.This is the level at which gamers learn to create value-Decide whether to do something right or wrong based on a moral decision.This level also includes non-Conscious emotional information that affects these decisions.So this is the most controversial level of learning.In terms of learning, this is the level at which players can actually win or lose the game.Learning at when/whether to create levels comes not only from zooming in and out, but also from the use of fables and symbols.It comes from images, scenes, sounds, music and other emotions --Like a novel or movie, manipulate the effect into a powerful combination.Learning at this level also comes from rewards, punishments, and consequences in the game.Of course, in some combat games, the combination of amplification, emotional cues and rewards will let the player know that it is OK to kill the character in the game environment?x94 is x93Yes.But the important question is: are the children really getting to know this as welllife?Are they leaving these games with information? Is this behavior fun in the game or is it leaving with information?When/whether to convey a message to the real world in which they live, do they summarize all their games, or do they accept and retain some information (E.G.g.The battle is strong and refuses others.g.Are everyone enemies?I would argue that unless it has been seriously disturbed, the children will not leave the violent game with the message "I have to run out and do it", at least not in our society.Henry Jenkins, a professor of comparative media at MIT, pointed out that we fantasize about a lot of things we never want to do in real life.Just like the rules, players constantly crossAuto and non-auto check messages in gameConsciously, and occasionally consciously, in line with anything else they know or hear.Consistent news was accepted and news of the conflict was further reviewed.'We usually test media statements against our direct experience, and when they're not really real-time, we fire them, 'Jenkins said.Perhaps in some distorted cultures, the message that encourages killing in violent games can indeed encourage players to kill in real life.But in a culture like ours, the message "Don't kill" is a deep part of our cultural background, and people and even children are thinking about whether to do so in real life, unless they have been seriously disturbed.Of course, we must pay attention to our youngest children, who are the most difficult in sorting and distinguishing.Still, as my game designer friend Noah Falstein reminded us, we have to be careful to buy the words of those who blame the game's doom on corumbyn, and ignore the fact that these people make pipe bombs in the garage, which their parents never noticed.There will always be children who do not get social information from their parents or elsewhere.But they are the exception.Comparing when/whether to learn in the game with when/whether to learn for the rest of your life is the reason why shooting games can teach kids how to aim without learning to kill people.To understand the latter, the player has to overcome the massive disconnect from the information he or she has heard for the rest of his life.It is certainly in our public interest to maintain this confrontation --Information as frequently and strongly as possible.But while some critics argue that bad behavior always has bad consequences in the game, most players will tell you that they will no longer be interesting if the game becomes purely a moral lesson.The appeal of many games and other forms of entertainment is largely a security violation.However, even this includes learning.In recent years, [the game] has tried to provide more performance of aggression, loss and suffering that are morally complex and emotionally demanding, Jenkins said.These are important.All children need to know more about life emotions.Now it's time, so far, in theory, most of the time is describing learning in computers and video games, and we're turning to some actual best learning.Sell games and see what our kids learn from playing games.I'm going to look at three examples: one that is contained in something that might be considered educational in a sense, and one that is obviously just a game (though not particularly violent) that many people think is objectionable.Two are computer games.The third is video games, which can now be used on PC.1.Our first example is the rickshaw tycoon.It sold computer games for several years and sold more than 4 million copies.While you can play the game in a number of ways, your basic goal is to create a successful theme park starting with a fixed amount.Depending on your building, how you maintain them and the tickets and amenities you choose, virtual people either show up or don't, you either make money or lose money.You can even see what your guests are thinking.How players learn how to build and run businesses in surface content, how to get land, build rides, deploy workers, etc.At another level, players learn how to use economic simulations with graphical interfaces.At what level, players understand the limits of what you can and can't do.For example, you cannot build on land that you do not own (or control.You can't expect people to ride bad cars.You need to allow your customers to eat and go to the toilet on a regular basis.Why? At the why or strategic level, players understand the trade-offs that need to be made in order to run a business successfully.For example, they know that a clean Park attracts guests at work order, but the maintenance costs.They know that if prices rise, there will be fewer people coming.At this level of why, the tycoon is basically teaching real-Skills in resource management and trade-off analysis.Where? Do players understand the business environment? The customer's thoughts, how they behave, how they make them happy or angry.When/whether and when/whether levels, players will soon learn that customer behavior depends on the owner's choice.If as a host you increase the price, cut corners, build a few bathrooms and do not repair your ridesLong-term profits can soar, but your customers will be unhappy and your profits will soon disappear.These are some of our real lessons.Life executives may want them to know earlier!Coach tycoon, and a few others.the-Shelf games have recently been used as teaching tools in school classrooms in the UK.They found that among other things, one of the most important things children learn from the game is how to work together in a team.The rickshaw tycoon does not claim to be a learning tool for a business game.But the amount of learning is huge.Although obviously not all games are realAs a rickshaw tycoon, it is sometimes possible to make more such games without even making a clear attempt.2.For example, let's take a look at the Sims, which is probably the most popular computer game ever, with a total sales of more than 17 million units."Sims" is a "life Doll House" game in which players build a house, and people who talk, grow, work, buy, date, partner, have children or even go to the bathroom are all based on the instructions of the player (a large number of artificial intelligence programming is built in ).In the words of game designer Will Wright, The Sims are a huge space of possibilities where players can build an infinite variety of possible scenarios from a happy core family, for an alternative lifestyle, to burn the maladjustment of the community.So what do players learn from playing games?In terms of content, how do they learn how to behave in a consumer society.They 've learned a lot about riot, including how to create it, choose it, and buy and sell it, both in-game and on eBay.On another level, however, they learn how to control and manipulate a complex person --Based on simulation;How to control characters and how to design and create graphics for houses, objects and even people, including tools to do so, is a big part of the appeal of the game.At what level, the player learns that some of the situations are very open and that there are relatively few rules and constraints that allow the player to move in almost any direction they choose, from building a successful family and career to burning houses and communities.This is no different from real.Life in America.Why? At the level of why, players learn that life is a story based on the choices you make.They learn this by exploring many strategies and paths that can be taken in the game, from clean and successful to dirty and tan.When they learn, there is a website on the Internet where they can post their stories and learn so that everyone can see them.Where can the Sims players learn about the 21 st century of America.This kind of learning comes not only from the game and a large number of Kidstuff online, but also from a wide range of activities that The Sims can participate in, from officers to aromatic therapists, with a wide variety of occupations in the game.Players learn what it takes to build a life and lifestyle from making friends, partying and dating to having children.They know how many kinds of lives they can create, how good or bad they are.When/is final, when/whether level players learn about the consequences of their life choices from small choices (E.G.g.Not going to the bathroom) go big (E.G.g.No effort ).Given all the criticism we 've heard about computers and video games, it's fun, and the most popular computer game ever, The Sims, is directly and clearly helping you understand life.The Sims extends normal fantasy games for children and adults to a new level of interpretation and engagement and creates a realMillions of shared communities of life.3.The clear fantasy game is also the theme of our last example, "auto theft III.GTA3 is one of the games critics like to hate, always citing its choice of free killing, violence and having sex with prostitutes.Despite the fact that the game maker provided a hard-worded reminder that it was an adult game and that it was rated GTA3, more than 6.Sold 5 million units, very popular, can say this and R-It ended in front of many children.What did they learn?[Important tip: I don't recommend children to play this game, but just comment on what they will learn if they play.Although the content of gta3 is objective, players know very little about movies and TV if they don't.As one writer said, gta3 is a game, just like a movie is a vulgar novel.21 children already know that people in the world live in violation of social rules;The game is about how to survive and thrive in their world.Since the characters in the game are rule vandals and the players are usually not rule vandals, their stories usually appeal to the players and it's fun to engage them.In this sense, GTA3 is an interactive version of The Godfather and the Warriors.GTA3 is not a commercial simulator or a lifestyle simulator but a crime simulator.22 22 but on another level, GTA3 players learn to be in the most complex 3-D simulated, more realEven better than the simulated world.At what level, GTA3 players are learning how flexible the rules of the game are.Like the Sims and more computers and video games, there is no target in gta3.Instead, you make choices in the game world and show the results of those choices.There are things that can move you forward more than others, but choosing what to do depends on you.I call it "real world" learning.Why? At Why level, players learn to develop strategies based on expected results and consequences.If you do enough bad things, you will get a reputation and die faster.But if you steal ambulances and fire trucks and use them to save your life, you will live longer (though you may not want to choose this tactic ).Where, players can learn many accurate details about the former worldThe results of villain, mafia and violence are not beautiful.When/is it? Finally, on the level of when/whether, since the betrayed bank robber, a person's script unexpectedly emerges from the prison, and the player knows that the people who make mistakes in life still have the choice to do it, the options are still open to them and they can use them better or worse.In making these choices, players also learned that being a gamer, it is healthy from time to make their aggressive impulses public (not to mention fun )."We rely on storytelling media (such as games) to help us resolve our conflicting values and complex feelings about aggression and control our impulses," said Professor Jenkins .".Players of 23 and GTA3 are also learning, which has an impact on negative choices.If you're really bad, the police (helicopter Swat, FBI, and even the Army) will eventually show up, although you may have a hard fight and they can always find you in the endPositive or negative?I hope it's becoming clearer now that what kids learn from playing video and computer games is far beyond their imagination.Eye coordination.When children play these games, a lot of learning will happen, which will no longer cause great disagreement.However, for this kind of learning is positive or negative, there are great differences about learning to game players in existing computers and video games, especially the impact of children and the society in which they live.Those who consider learning in video and computer games to be negative have the following concerns: To what extent these critics are concerned that children are learning how to do inappropriate things.To what extent, they are worried that the rules of video games are too strict to give children enough space to use their imagination.At Why level, their strategy of worrying about playing and winning many games contains too much violence, too much cheating, cheating and other unnecessary elements.At this level, they fear that children will be socialized and become lonely, women-averse and socially biased.At what time/To what extent, critics are concerned that our children are learning to be non-moral killers.These concerns are far less effective than alarmist claims.There is a very wide range of suitable things to do in computers and video games.Most video and computer games are not violent, and games that attract the attention of critics because of violence (those rated as "mature games") account for less than 10% of the total number of purchases and plays.In the eyes of many psychologists, even these games are emotionally impaired, not inflammatory.Every day, there are fewer and fewer restrictions on players, more open to the imagination and personality of players, and more open to game designers.End the elements that children can use to exercise their imagination and tell their own stories.Most newer games have multiple winning strategies to choose from, including collaboration.With the proliferation of network technology, video and computer games are rapidly restoring the strong social connection that the game has always been.Video games are becoming more and more open to girls, and girls are becoming more and more open to these games.There is a lot of positive information inside and outside the game that can create more, and in order to counter any violence, the answer is that a few games may bring a smaller number to players who are already in trouble.This question is not --Sears's argument is that they generally ignore all of the potential positive learning in video and computer games.Although it is clear that some games need ageProper guidance-that's why our ratings-Overall, positive learning from computers and video games is far more than any negative.Critics focus only on the negative side, subtly and sadly shifting our attention away from issues that are really important and useful: how can we use the incredible involvement of computers and video games to help kids learn more about what we want them to know?I firmly believe that as we learn to supplement the content of today's game with educational content, and still keep the fun of the game, computers and video games will become our biggest learning tool as we all know.The tricky part, of course, is to integrate the game with the school curriculum, a task that many people are struggling to accomplish, from George Lucas to Microsoft and MIT to lighspanOf course, when we do this, adults always need to help young players distinguish between their games and reality.Sony has warned children not to live in your world in its ads.Play In Ours.But as reality and simulation continue to blur in contemporary life (games are not the only place where this happens), we can all use help to maintain their continuity.Nevertheless, there is absolutely no need for parents to worry about learning in their children's videos and computer games as some critics have suggested.In fact, parents should have fun for their children in many ways.The number of children learning is huge, most of them positive.What parents should be more concerned about is the relatively poor amount of learning in our classroom.The statistics clearly show that this is a worldwide shame.It's certainly not the children's fault.Children instinctively want to learn and are drawn to places where learning actually happens, such as their videos and computer games.In fact, game-There are too many things to play with children and often make teachers feel scared.When we start to better understand the impact of computers and video games on our children and use it for lessons and other positive uses, I predict, computers and video games will be the savior of our field of learning.In 1984, Bruce Springsteen sang "We learned more from three minutes of records than we learned at school."Most kids today learn a lot more from 30 to 100 hours of video and computer games than they do at school, and often don't even realize it.Yes, most of the study now has nothing to do with the course.But if we put money and energy into creating games that do have specific lesson elements but are still fun enough so that kids still want to play these games whether you believe it or not, thank you.It's not new to let the kids learn, but our video game will be.In the words of George Lucas, he started learning from Lucas in order to combine his Star Wars video games with course activities, for young people, these new learning experiences provide me with an alternative to traditional methods.1.In the online discussion of http:/list.debian.org/debian-jr/2000/debian-jr-200008/msg1.2.Dave Grossman and Gloria di Gaitano, stop teaching our kids to kill, Crown, 19993.Patricia Mark Greenfield, a psychology professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, is one of the first to point out the difference, in the following works.4.Mark Prensky, digital gamesLearning, McGraw5.Patricia Mark Greenfield's cultural evolution in American IkeNesser (ed.), Upward curve: long-term growth of IQ and related measures (pp81-123), American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.6.Mr Grossman and Di Gaitano, op.cit.7.Mind and media: the influence of television, video games and computers, Harvard University Press, 1984.8.Sherry Turkle, life on screen, Simon and Schuster, 1995.9.10.The New York Times quoted Johor Katz as saying on May 2, 1999 that there were two words behind the massacre.11.Statistics on imprisonment from: http:/wwwals.uidaho.Edu/scooke/1%/prison.12.Marc Prensky estimates TV time.Home TV in 1998: The third annual survey of parents and children at the anonburg Policy Center, on June 22, 1998, the number of hours per day to watch TV was 2 hours.55.M.Chen gave the number of 4 hours a day in the guide to smart parents for children's TV (1994.Take the average value, 3.3 hours/day x 365 days x 18 years = 21,681.13.Danny Hillis spoke at the computer game developer conference in March 2000.14.Eugene F.Provenzo, Jr.Harvard University Press, video for children, 1991.15.In this sense, the term transgtransfusion games has been promoted by famous, highly original game designer Eric Zimmerman.16.Henry Jenkins was ambushed on Donahue, Salon's online website.Com on Http:/www.salon.Com/tech/feature/2002/08/20/jenkins _ on_donahue/index.17.Ibid.18.Inspired Noah Falstein is a designer of many computer games, including several from Lucas art.19.Jenkins, op.cit.20.21.Jenkins, op.cit.22.Frank Candela Mutali, GTA3 online review on http:/www.gta3.com/index.php?23.Ibid.24.Mr Grossman and Di Gaitano, op.cit.25.In psychologists who believe exposure to violent entertainment is more likely to ease than stimulating aggression, Semour Feshbach cited in a study on violence and the media at www.freedomforum.Organization/publication/First/violence and media.pdf.The report says different schools of psychology hold very different views on what causes human violence and aggression.26.Mark prencki, why does the game attract us in digital gamesBased on learning, op.cit.And at www.marcprensky.Com/write/default.27.Bruce Springsteen, no surrender, was born in the United States, Sony/Columbia 1984.28.George Lucas vision, online www.lucaslearning.About George.